In partnership with the Society of Biology, Royal Society of Chemistry, and Institute of Physics

Introduction to argumentation

A scientific argument uses evidence to make a case for whether a scientific idea should be accepted or rejected. The process of developing, discussing and evaluating these scientific arguments is called argumentation.

Read the Quick start guide while preparing to use the argumentation teaching resources. It provides an overview of what argumentation means in the context of a practical science lesson. 

A further six sections provide information on specific areas essential to using the argumentation approach successfully.  

1. How is argumentation different to other related concepts?

2. What does argumentation look like in practice?

3. The teacher’s role in supporting argumentation

4. The student’s role in argumentation

5. Getting critical within argumentation

6. How does argumentation link to other aspects of Practical Work for Learning?

References for the introduction to argumentation

Download the full introduction to argumentation

A research summary was produced at the start of the project. It examines the evidence relating to argumentation, the implications for using this approach in lessons which include practical work, and suggested interventions.