Solutions and solubility
Distribution of iodine between two immiscible solvents
A qualitative investigation into the way a solute, iodine, can distribute itself between two immiscible solvents, aqueous potassium iodide and cyclohexane.
How can hardness in water be removed?
The effect of various softening methods is tried on temporarily and permanently hard water.
Investigating the solubilities of lead halides
Solutions of soluble halides are mixed with a solution of a lead salt. Students investigate the formation of insoluble lead halides, and effect of temperature.
Making a crystal garden
A colourful experiment to engage with students over a period of time whilst the crystals develop from the solution.
Making and testing ammonia
Students produce ammonia gas and carry out a small-scale, simplified version of the ammonia fountain experiment.
Properties of hydrogen chloride
This experiment looks at preparing hydrogen chloride and investigating some of its properties.
Silver and lead halides
A series of reactions showing the formation of silver and lead halides, and some of their properties.
Sodium ethanoate 'stalagmite'
A demonstration showing rapid crystallisation of a supersaturated solution.
Solubility patterns among anions of the Group 7 elements
The experiments explore patterns of solubility among the anions of Group 7 elements with lithium, calcium and silver cations.
Testing the hardness of water
Students test the hardness of various types of water by finding the volume of soap solution required to form a permanent lather.
Trends in the solubility of metal halides - a microscale experiment
This is a microscale experiment to investigate trends in the solubilities of metal halides.
Which ions cause hardness in water?
The effect of various dissolved salts on soap solution is tested, in order to see which cause hardness.