A collection of experiments that demonstrate chemical concepts and processes.
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The 'blue bottle' experiment

Demonstration

An alkaline solution of glucose acts as a reducing agent and reduces added methylene blue from a blue to a colourless form. Shaking the solution raises the concentration of oxygen in the mixture and this oxidises the methylene blue back to its blue form. When the dissolved oxygen has been consumed, the methylene blue is slowly reduced back to its colourless form by the remaining glucose, and the cycle can be repeated many times by further shaking.
 

Lesson organisation


The reactions involved are not part of a normal chemical curriculum, but this experiment has a good visual impact and would be one way of stimulating interest in chemistry, perhaps via an Open Day.

The demonstration lasts about 3 - 5 minutes, but about 15 - 20 minutes is needed for the preparation beforehand.

Chemicals

Potassium hydroxide (CORROSIVE), 8 g

Glucose (dextrose), 10 g

Methylene blue (HARMFUL), 0.05 g

Ethanol (IDA – Industrial Denatured Alcohol) (HIGHLY FLAMMABLE, HARMFUL), 50 cm3

Access to a nitrogen cylinder (optional)

Refer to Health & Safety and Technical notes section below for additional information.

Apparatus

Eye protection: goggles should be worn when preparing the solution

For each demonstration:

Conical flask (1 dm3)

Stopper or bung, to fit flask

Health & Safety and Technical notes


Read our standard health & safety guidance

Eye protection. Wear goggles when preparing the solution.

Potassium hydroxide, KOH(s), (CORROSIVE) - see CLEAPSS Hazcard.

Glucose (dextrose), C6H12O6(s) - see CLEAPSS Hazcard.

Methylene blue (HARMFUL) - see CLEAPSS Hazcard.

Ethanol (IDA – Industrial Denatured Alcohol), C2H5OH(l), (HIGHLY FLAMMABLE, HARMFUL) - see CLEAPSS Hazcard.

Procedure


Before the demonstration (less than 20 minutes beforehand, preferably)

a Make a solution of 0.05 g of methylene blue in 50 cm3 of ethanol (0.1%).

b Weigh 8 g of potassium hydroxide into the 1 dm3 conical flask.

c Add 300 cm3 of water and 10 g of glucose and swirl until the solids are dissolved.

d Add 5 cm3 of the methylene blue solution. The exact quantity used is not critical.

e The resulting blue solution will turn colourless after about one minute. Stopper the flask.
 

The demonstration
a Holding the stopper securely in place, shake the flask vigorously so that air dissolves in the solution.

b The colour will change to blue and will fade back to colourless over about 30 seconds.

c The more shaking, the longer the blue colour will take to fade.

d The process can be repeated for over 20 cycles.

e After some hours, the solution will turn yellow and the colour changes will fail to occur.

Teaching notes


A white background helps to make the colour changes more vivid. A white laboratory coat is ideal.

On a cold day it may be necessary to warm the solution to at least 20 °C, otherwise the changes are very slow.

Methylene blue is a redox indicator and is colourless under reducing conditions but regains its blue colour when oxidised.

The removal of the blue colour is caused by the glucose which, under alkaline conditions, is reducing the methylene blue to a colourless form. Shaking the solution admits oxygen, which re-oxidises the methylene blue back to the blue form.

To confirm that oxygen is responsible for the colour change, nitrogen can be bubbled through the solution for a couple of minutes to displace air from the solution and the flask. If the stopper is now replaced and the bottle shaken, no colour change will occur. Reintroducing the air by pouring the solution into another flask and shaking will restore the system.

Natural gas can be used (in a fume cupboard) if nitrogen is not available. Some teachers may wish to present this experiment as a magic trick. The colour change can be brought about by simply pouring the solution from a sufficient height into a large beaker.

This experiment can be a popular Open Day activity. If visitors are to be allowed to shake the bottle themselves it might be wise to use a plastic screw-top pop bottle to eliminate the risk of the stopper coming off or the bottle being dropped and broken. The solution does not appear to interact with the plastic over a period of a day but it would be sensible to try out the bottle you intend to use beforehand.

Redox indicators other than methylene blue can be used. In each case add the stated amount of indicator to the basic recipe of 10 g of glucose and 8 g of potassium hydroxide in 300 cm3 of water.

1 Phenosafranine This is red when oxidised and colourless when reduced. Use about 6 drops of a 0.2% solution in water for a bottle that goes pink on shaking and colourless on standing. The initial pink colour takes some time to turn colourless at first. A mixture of phenosafranine (6 drops) and methylene blue (about 20 drops of the 0.1% solution in ethanol) gives a bottle which will turn pink on gentle shaking through purple with more shaking and eventually blue. It will reverse the sequence on standing.

2 Indigo carmine  Use 4 cm3 of a 1% solution in water. The mixture will turn from yellow to red-brown with gentle shaking and to pale green with more vigorous shaking. The changes reverse on standing. These colours are those of traffic lights.

3 Resazurin (IRRITANT - see CLEAPSS Hazcard) Use about 4 drops of a 1% solution in water. This goes from pale blue to a purple-pink colour on shaking and reverses on standing. On first adding the dye, the solution is dark blue. This fades after about one minute.

Mixtures of the above dyes can also be used.

Health & Safety checked August 2008

 

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Redox indicator

 

Page last updated on 29 December 2011