Premature babies earn less as adults, possibly due to lower maths ability

People who are born premature tend to accumulate less wealth as adults, and a new study funded by the Nuffield Foundation suggests this may be due to lower mathematics abilities.

Use of Research Evidence in the Family Justice System

Court decision-making within the Family Justice System can have a profound influence on the lives of families and children. However, there is relatively limited research capacity to address the fundamental questions in family justice.

The Family Justice Review in 2011 highlighted a need for:

Drug & Alcohol Court

Basic info
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Family Drug and Alcohol Courts (FDAC) to be extended across England following independent evaluation funded by the Foundation. 

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Force between electromagnets

Demonstration

To introduce and revise electromagnets.

Apparatus and materials

For each student group

Unilab coils (or equivalent), 60 + 60 turns, 2

Clamp stand & boss, 2

Power supply, low voltage, variable

Aluminium rod (e.g. from clamp stand)

Steel rod (e.g. from clamp stand)

Ruler (30 cm, 50 cm or metre rule) 

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Studying a commercial relay

Demonstration

If students have made a model relay, this demonstration will reinforce their learning.

Apparatus and materials

Cell, 1.5 V

Commercial relay, small

Power supply, low voltage, DC

Switch

Iron yoke

Electric motor, fractional horsepower

Magnadur (ceramic) slab magnets, 2

Copper wire, stiff, bare, SWG 32 and SWG 26

Clamp, or wooden support blocks

Crocodile clips, 2

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Making your own relay

Class practical

Switching a small current through one circuit causes a larger current through another circuit to be switched on (or off).

Apparatus and materials

For each student group

Copper wire, PVC-covered, 150 cm with bare ends

C-core, laminated iron

Hacksaw blade

Adhesive tape

Support blocks or clamps, 2

Cell, 1.5 V

Switch

Battery, 12 V or low-voltage DC power supply

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A model electric bell

Class practical

A clever application of feedback: a switch that opens and closes due to temporary magnetism in a current-carrying coil of wire.

Apparatus and materials

For each student group

C-core, laminated iron

Hacksaw blade

Plasticine

Copper wire, PVC-covered, 150 cm with bare ends

Power supply, low-voltage ('Westminster pattern' very-low-voltage supplies are best)

Adhesive tape

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A model buzzer

Class practical

Electromagnets of all shapes and sizes can be found doing useful jobs in machinery such as buzzers, bells and relays.

Apparatus and materials

For each student group

Copper wire, PVC-covered, 150 cm with bare ends

C-core, laminated iron

Hacksaw blade

Power supply, low-voltage ('Westminster pattern' very-low-voltage supplies are best)

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Electromagnets: forces

Class practical

An illustration of magnetic induction. Students could go on to investigate how an electromagnet's strength varies with the current.

Apparatus and materials

For each student group

Copper wire, PVC-covered, 150 cm with bare ends

C-cores, laminated iron, 2

Power supply, low-voltage ('Westminster pattern' very-low-voltage supplies are best)  

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Electromagnets: field pattern

Class practical

Exploring the magnetic field pattern for a C-core.

Apparatus and materials

For each student group

Copper wire, PVC-covered, 150 cm with bare ends

C-core, laminated iron

Cardboard

Iron filings

Plotting compass

Power supply, low-voltage ('Westminster pattern' very-low-voltage supplies are best)  

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